Mod 1 – What is RFID – What is Tested

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Scope

This section covers the types of RFID systems, which are generally categorized by the way in which the tag, or transponder, is powered for receiving data/instructions from the RFID reader (interrogator) and transmitting data back in reply. The three main types of systems are:

  • Passive
  • Battery Assisted Passive (BAP) or Semi-Passive
  • Active

What You Are Expected to Know

The categorizations as well as the characteristics of each type of RFID technology in the context of:

 

  • Impact on data transfer rate
  • Impact of read range
  • Impact on costs
  • Typical applications
  • Frequencies normally used for each category, including:
    • Low Frequency (LF) 120 – 150 kHz
    • High Frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz
    • Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) 860 – 960 MHz
    • Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) 433 MHz
    • Microwave 2.45 – 5.8 GHz
    • Ultra Wide Band (UWB) 3.1 – 10 GHz
  • Behavior of passive systems using different frequencies, including:
    • Read range
    • Typical application
    • Performance near metals and water based liquids
    • Regulations applying to use – including transmitted power limitations
    • Mode of operation (e.g. induction)
    • Type of antenna used
  • Active RFID systems, including those that use the following protocols:
    • ISO 18000-7 (Savi Technology protocol)
    • DASH7 (2nd generation of ISO 18000-7)
    • Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11n
    • Zigbee IEEE 802.15.4

What You Are NOT Expected to Know

    •  How the power is harvested or used
    •  Power levels
    •  Battery types
    •  Battery life cycles
    •  Waveforms or modulation schemes used
    •  Details of signal protocols
    •  Types of batteries us
    •  Security techniques
    •  Specific details or statistics related to: 
      • Rain penetration performance
      • Building penetration performance
      • Power consumption
      • Location accuracy